GenderSexuality and Gender


Anime is a form of art and cultural expression that has transcended the borders of Japan and become a global phenomenon. However, Japanese anime is also a mass communication medium that reflects and transmits the values, norms, and stereotypes of Japanese society, especially regarding gender issues and the representation of women.

We invite you to explore the role and vision of women who write and draw anime with a gender perspective in Japan, that is, those who create stories and characters that question, criticize, or subvert traditional gender roles and expectations and offer a more diverse, complex, and empowered view of women in anime.

History of Women in Japanese Society and its Reflection on the Creation of Japanese Anime

To understand the current situation of women who write and draw Japanese anime with a gender perspective in The Land of the Rising Sun, it is necessary to briefly review the history of women in Japanese society and anime and how their representation and treatment have evolved over the years.

Women in Japanese society have historically been subjected to solid discrimination and gender inequality based on the patriarchal and feudal system that prevailed in the country. Women were seen as inferior beings, dependent and subordinate to men, and their role was limited to the domestic and family sphere, without access to education, work, or political participation.

However, in the second half of the 20th century, a series of social, political, and cultural changes occurred that favoured the emergence of a feminist movement in Japan, which advocated for women’s rights and equality and questioned established gender roles and norms. These changes were also reflected in Japanese anime, which began to feature the presence and influence of more women in the creative field, both as writers, artists, directors, or producers, and also as consumers and fans.

These women brought a new gender perspective to Japanese anime, creating stories and characters that broke stereotypes and conventions of gender and showed greater diversity, complexity, and empowerment of women in anime. Some of the pioneers and references of this movement were:

Riyoko Ikeda, creator of The Rose of Versailles, one of the most influential works of Japanese anime and manga, tells the story of Oscar François de Jarjayes, a woman who disguises herself as a man to become captain of the French royal guard during the French Revolution.

Japanese Anime - The Rose of Versailles

Mōto Hagio is considered the mother of shōjo manga, the genre aimed at female audiences, who introduced themes such as science fiction, psychoanalysis, gender fluidity, or homosexual love in her works, such as Queen Margot or The Heart of Thomas.

Japanese Anime - Queen Margot

Rumiko Takahashi, the most successful and recognized mangaka in history, created works as famous as Ranma ½, Inuyasha, or Maison Ikkoku, characterized by their humour, action, romance, and strong, independent, and charismatic female characters.

Japanese Anime - Maison Ikkoku

Naoko Takeuchi, the author of Sailor Moon, the Japanese anime and manga that revolutionized the magical girls genre, presented a group of heroines who fought for love and justice, combining elements of fantasy, comedy, drama, and feminism.

Japanese Anime - Sailor Moon

Genres and Phenomena of Anime with a Gender Perspective in Japan

Women who write and draw anime from a gender perspective in Japan have contributed to creating and developing various genres and phenomena of anime characterized by their innovation, originality, and social criticism. Some of the most prominent ones are:

Shōjo: The genre of anime and manga aimed at female audiences, focusing on the emotions, relationships, and conflicts of the characters, especially in romantic relationships. Shōjo has been the most influential and revolutionary genre regarding the representation of women in anime, as it has explored themes such as identity, sexuality, gender, friendship, dreams, or rebellion of the protagonists, offering a more realistic, complex, and diverse view of women in anime.

Josei: The genre of anime and manga aimed at adult female audiences, focusing on the experiences, problems, and aspirations of mature women, personally and professionally. Josei differs from shōjo in its more serious, realistic, dramatic tone and more explicit and mature treatment of themes such as sex, love, work, family, or society.

Yaoi: The genre of anime and manga that tells stories of love and sex between men from a female and fantastical perspective. Yaoi is a cultural and social phenomenon that has generated a large community of fans and creators, who use Yaoi as a form of expression, exploration, and subversion of gender roles and norms, and as a critique of the heteronormativity and sexism of Japanese society.

Yuri: The genre of anime and manga that tells stories of love and sex between women from a female and realistic perspective. Yuri is a genre that has evolved from its origins as a subgenre of shōjo, which showed ambiguous and platonic relationships between girls, to become its genre, representing explicit and diverse relationships between women and reflecting the challenges, difficulties, and joys of being a lesbian in Japanese society.

Kawaii: The aesthetic and cultural phenomenon based on the admiration and search for the cute, adorable, and childish, both in physical appearance and behaviour. Kawaii is a phenomenon that has permeated all areas of Japanese culture, including anime. It significantly influences women’s representation in anime, as kawaii is often associated with femininity, and kawaii is used as a form of expression, communication, and resistance by women.

Japanese Anime - Kawaii

The evolution of women in the world of Japanese anime has been fascinating and significant. From the days when gender stereotypes were prevalent, women have challenged and redefined their roles, both in Japanese society and in anime narratives.

As anime continues to be a global artistic expression, the representation of women remains a central theme of exploration and reinvention. Female characters and plots now go beyond traditional stereotypes, reflecting a more comprehensive range of experiences and challenges. Although significant progress has been made, there is still room for reflection and continuous improvement in the representation of women in Japanese anime.